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Cameroon

Geography:
The Republic of Cameroon is a country in north-western part of Central Africa,
has a total area of 475 400 km2. The extreme southern point of the Cameroon is located less than 200 kilometers from equator. Coastline is about 320 kilometers. Borders Nigeria on the north-west, Chad on the north and north-east; Central African Republic on the east, on the south with Gabon, Congo and Equatorial Guinea. The relief of Cameroon is
characterized by the alternation of mountains, plateaus and plains. Most
Atlantic coast is occupied by the accumulative lowlands (in some places
wetlands), with broad estuaries. On the coast rises an
active trachybasaltic stratovolcano Cameroon (altitude 4100 meters).
South of the Lobe river the coast is high and rocky. In the central
part of the country blocky mountains rise up to Adamawa in 2460 meters (Mt.
Chabal-Mbabo), complicated young lava cones of long ago erupted volcanoes.
To the south of these mountains are located basement denudation plateaus,
that occupy a large part of Cameroon. To the north of the mountains of Adamawa is
an elevated reservoir plain, bordered on the west by low-altitude mountains
Mandara. The extreme north of the country is lake-basin aggradation plain
Lake Chad flooded in the rainy season. Extreme south-east Cameroon
lies on the outskirts of the Congo Basin.
A dense network of rivers and abounding in Cameroon belongs to the basin
Atlantic Ocean, except the extreme north and north-east of the river
which flow into Lake Chad. The largest river, the pool of which is entirely located in
Cameroon, is Sanaga. The rivers that originate in the northern
slopes of Adamawa, Benue in the fall, which is the main tributary of the Niger.
Rivers flowing to the south-east flow into the Sangu, belonging to the basin of the Congo.
For hydropower needs were created large reservoirs: Mbakau, Lagdo,
Bamendzhing.
In the administrative territorial Cameroon is divided into 10 provinces.
The population as of 2008 – 18.5 million people, the main
nation – Fang, Bamileke, Duala, bass, bumun, bug, Mandara, all –
More than 250 ethnic groups.
Capital – Yaounde (1500000 people), the largest city and economic
Center – Douala (about 2 million population).
Cameroon has a diverse natural resources: oil, gas, iron,
bauxite, manganese, zinc, lead, tungsten, molybdenum, tin, titanium, gold,
precious stones. These deposits have not been sufficiently studied. Country
is rich in forest resources, occupies the 6th place in the world
export fine wood.
There are enterprises of oil and refining, aluminum,
leather and footwear, textile and wood industries.
Annual oil production – 5 million tons annually harvested about 2 million cubic meters.
meters of wood, mostly of valuable species.

Nature:
Forests and woodlands cover about half of the country. In Cameroon
forests grow almost all tropical tree species. The most typical
fig-trees, breadfruit, eucalyptus and palm trees. A lot of valuable species, using
demand on the world market: different types of mahogany, such as cashew,
sipo, sapele, ebony, yellow wood, and others that provide valuable
Hard stone and wood construction. Many tree species with extremely
solid (heavy) wood, among them one of the famous Iron
tree – azobe. The density of vegetation increases from north to
South: the distance from the Lake Chad desert grasslands give way to typical,
to replace that in the central part of the country come and woodlands
deciduous and evergreen forests in the south give way to moist evergreen
equatorial forests to one of the highest levels of biodiversity in
Africa. On the slopes of the volcano Cameroon mountain evergreen forests above 3,000 m
are replaced by mountain meadows. Along the coast, mangroves grow. In
part of the Cameroonian flora of more than 9000 species of higher plants, fauna
under 1000 species of birds, 300 species of mammals, 200 species
reptiles. Is rich in fauna and water. In coastal waters there are over
130 species of fish, including many that are valuable as food, as well as crabs,
shrimp, lobster.

Climate:
Climatic conditions in Cameroon are different across the country. In the south
equatorial climate, constantly-moist in the center and north –
subequatorial, with rainy summers and dry winters (up to dry
season from south to north increases from 4 to 7 months). The western and south-western
slopes of the volcano Cameroon is the wettest place in Africa (up to 9655 mm of rainfall in
year) and one of the wettest places in the world.
In the northern part of the country’s average temperature from December to January, 26-27 ° C
(The coldest period of the year), the warmest time (April-May), the average
temperature rises to 32-33 ° C. The average rainfall in the north –
less than 500 mm per year, thus achieving low humidity,
promotes good heat tolerance, even for Europeans.

Political system:
Cameroon – a presidential republic. Under the new constitution of
1996, the executive power vested in the president (head of state)
and Prime Minister (government accountable only to the president)
legislative – parliament – the National Assembly. President – Paul
Biya was elected to this position, the fifth (after 1982), once in 2004 (up
7 years). Prime Minister – Philemon Yang.
The current composition of the parliament (180 deputies elected by universal
direct elections for 5 years) was formed in June 2002
result of regular multiparty elections. Prescribed by the constitution
formation of the upper house of parliament (Senate) not implemented yet.
The official languages – French (mostly – the north) and
English (central and southern part).

Religion: 54% of Catholics (mainly – South Cameroon), 4% –
representatives of other Christian beliefs, 35% followers of Islam
(Mostly – the people of Northern Cameroon), the rest follow
traditional local beliefs.
Currency – Franc African Financial Community (CFA Franc).
Cameroon has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established
11.20 with the Soviet Union in 1964).
National holiday: – May 20 “Proclamation of the unitary
state, celebrated from 1972 and January 1,” Independence Day “
(Celebrated first in 1960).

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